Thursday, 1 December 2011

Eksperimen menarik untuk adik - adik !

hye adik - adik , untuk sekali lagi kaksu ingin berkongsi dengan adik - adik dengan eksperimen ini :] 

jika adik-adik berminat untuk melakukan lebih banyak lagi eksperimen , adik-adik boleh melayari :] selamat mencuba .........

Monday, 28 November 2011

Bird :]

Since the beginning of man, humans have been fascinated with magic and mystery of birds. Early ancient cultures and civilizations worshiped birds as gods and spiritual beings.  
Hawk in Flight -
Hawk in Flight
As man began to evolve, he constantly attempted to emulate winged flight. Centuries later, the airplane was born, thanks to our bird friends. Birds are amazingly intelligent creatures and possibly some of the most intriguing.
Most birds are able to fly, but not every species can! Just because a bird has wings doesn't mean it can necessarily soar the skies.
Birds are technically referred to as the classification of Aves orAviansThey are warm-blooded creatures and are very similar tomammals. Yet, birds arevertebrates with feathers modified for flight and for active metabolism. Similar to reptiles, birds lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young.
Blue Jay -
Beautiful Blue Jay at Rest
ostrich -
Take the Ostrich for example. The ostrich can run at incredibly fast speeds, but does not get airborne due to its tremendous size and build.
Flamingos - AnimalWeb.comSouthern California - Flamingos at Santa Barbara Zoo
Birds vastly vary in their shapes, sizes, colors, and even in their behavior patterns. Today, there are approximately 20,000 different species of birds all around the world.
Lorikeets -
Lorikeets - San Diego Wild Animal Park

In addition, there are about 30orders of birds, around 200families, and approximately 2,000 genera. That's a lot of birds!
When it comes to parenting, bird parents are very attentive to their young. Most provide extensive care for their babies until they are fully grown.
Birds are of a monophyletic lineage, which means they evolved once from a common ancestor - through a common origin. While we know that some birds don't fly, their ancestors most likely did! Nature will continuously modify the DNA structure within all life forms to meet the needs of the current day.How birds hunted for food a million years ago was very different today than in the 21st century. It was much more difficult and much more dangerous!
African Grey Parrots - AnimalWeb.comAfrican Grey Parrots as Pets
As a result of the modern world, wing sizes have reduced in size, beaks are smaller, and so on. Some bird commonalities include a horny beak without teeth,large muscular stomach, feathers, and large-yolked hard-shelled eggs.
Bald Eagles -
Bald Eagles - Guarding their Nest
In some cases, a bird can get a guardian to assist with parental care. And often times, both male and female bird parents are involved with "the raising of the children."
Mother Wren - AnimalWeb.comMother Wren at her Nest
Just like the wing of an airplane, a bird's wing is aerodynamically curved from front to back, in the shape of what scientists call an airfoil. As the bird's wing flaps, air flows faster over the upward-curved top than it does across the bottom. Fast-moving air has less pressure than slow-moving air, so there is more pressure pushing up on the wing than there is pushing down. This creates what scientists call lift, which is what helps to get a bird into the air (and helps keep it there).Amazingly, when baby birds leave the nest for the very first time, they know instinctively how to flap their wings, right away! It takes time for a young bird to become good at flying, but that instinct is present from birth. The young bird must practice flying if it is to survive. In time, it will build and strengthen its flight muscles crucial to its existence.

Birds have four ways they can fly; they can glide,hoversoar, and flap.
To glide, a bird extends its strong wings completely outward and sails through the air without flapping, dropping slowly toward the ground. If you get the chance, watch a goose or duck dropping down into a pond - that's a glide. They're great at it!
Rufous Hummingbird - AnimalWeb.comRufous Hummingbird
The best hoverers are Hummingbirds. If you've ever observed these fascinating creatures, they can actually stop in mid air! It has been estimated that a hummingbird flaps its wings over 50 times per second. Hummingbirds can also fly backwards and sideways, where no other bird can.
Soaring is like gliding, but a bird finds warm, rising air to carry it upward. Hawks, eagles, and vultures are all excellent soarers, as well as storks, cranes, and many other large birds.
Arctic Snow Geese - AnimalWeb.comArctic Snow Geese
Flapping is the most common kind of flight, but uses a lot of energy. Most really fast birds use flapping flight.
Recently, historians and scientists have theorized that birds may have descended from dinosaurs. Anyone who has ever observed bird behavior will agree this theory is quite possible. If birds did descend from dinosaurs, it would explain why they share certain traits to that of reptiles. This may sound strange but is quite true.
Wild SwallowsChatsworth, CA-Wild Swallows in Nests
Wild Swallows -
Fast flyers such as songbirds can fly about 20 to 30 miles per hour. The Common Eider can fly nearly 50 miles per hour, while Dunlinsor shorebirds once caught up with and passed a plane clocked at flying 100 miles per hour! Hawksand Falcons are considered the fastest birds. Experts think they may reach up to about 200 miles per hour in dives.

Tuesday, 22 November 2011

Fish :]

The answers may surprise you. Fishes come in a wide variety of shapes, colors and sizes. Yet, not all sea creatures fall under the "Fish" classification.
For example, a Shark is classified as a fish, while a Dolphin is considered a sea mammal, a member of the Whalefamily. The differences are fascinating. Nature is truly remarkable in its subtle differences in various animals, and fishes are no exception.

Reef Shark
A dolphin and a shark differ in several ways: For instance, dolphin relies upon breathing in oxygen more like a human than a fish. In other words, the animal must "come up for air," in order to survive. A shark does not. A shark breathes through its gills to obtain oxygen from water

Seaworld, San Diego, CA
A dolphin is a mammal made of skeletal bone. A shark's skeletal structure is not comprised ofbone, but entirely comprised of hard cartilage.
Some fishes, like sharks, reproduce byinternal fertilization. This means the male deposits sperm into the female fish, where the eggs are fertilized inside of the mother. These fishes are calledlivebearers, which means that they give birth live young, not egg hatchlings.
Most fishes reproduce by something known as, external fertilization. In other words, a female fish releases eggs into the water, where they are fertilized bysperm from a male. This process is called spawning.

Fishes have three important traits in common: 
  • 1. They live in water
  • 2. They have fins
  • 3. They use gills to get their oxygen from the water.

Salmon Eggs

Notice how the eyes prominently show through,
very early on in their development.

Fish eggs may hatch within several days of spawning or many weeks later, depending on the fish species, water temperature and other varying circumstances.

Alaskan Salmon Spawning
Many fishes develop bright colors during their breeding seasons. Usually it is the male that is more colorful. He uses his bright colors to attract females. Color also makes it easier for fishes to recognize members of their own species.

Beautiful, Colorful Marine Fish
Fish eggs range in size from a barely visible - like a microscopic dot, all the way to the size of a penny. Some eggs float in open water, while others are heavier and sink to the bottom. Eggs on the bottom may clump together in masses, or even stick to various objects. Some fishes place eggs on the undersides of rocks or on sticks in the water. Some eggs simply fall into the spaces between pebbles.

Many fishes move to special areas where conditions are just right for spawning and protecting their eggs. For some fish species, this is a matter of moving a few yards in a stream or into shallow water in a lake. But for others it can mean a journey of thousands of miles.

Beautiful Koi Breeding Pond
Some salmon species spend part of their lives in the salt water of the Pacific Ocean, but they travel many miles into freshwater streams and rivers to spawn.
Salmon Swimming Upstream for Spawn
Along the journey, their bodies change to a brilliant red color. Females release eggs along the gravel bottom, where they are fertilized by males. Both males and females die after spawning. The young fish hatch and spend a year in the fresh water before traveling out to sea. Two to three years later, the salmon return to the river as breeding adults. They spawn, and the cycle continues.
Many fishes simply release their eggs and sperm into the water and pay no attention at all to the fertilized eggs, but other fishes build nests and guard the eggs and young.Fishes usually spawn during a particular time of year. In freshwater ponds and lakes, late spring and early summer are excellent times to observe fishes making nests and laying eggs. It's also a good time to observe hatchlings (baby fishes) schooling together.

Cichlid Mother Guarding Eggs

Guppy Family
Juvenile freshwater fishes tend to resemble their parents, but most saltwater fishes have larval stages. These larval fish drift freely in the open sea and many are bizarre-looking, with odd shapes or long trailing fins.

Most fish parents spend little time caring for their offspring. But some will guard their young nestlings for a few days after the eggs hatch. In a few species the adults carry eggs on their bodies. Some fishes actually keep the eggs in their mouths until they hatch.When young fishes hatch they may look very different from adult fish of their species. A newly hatched fish may be nearly transparent, but in a few days they develop color patterns.

Sunday, 20 November 2011

Reptiles & Amphibians !

Some of our most wild, exciting and fascinating creatures on Earth have to be the reptiles. Today, there are nearly 7,000 reptile species on our planet - reptiles being some of the oldest living species ever recorded. Reptiles fall into the classification of "Reptilia." The main reptilian groups of animals are:
  • Alligators and Crocodiles
  • Lizards
  • Turtles and Tortoises
  • Snakes
Animals from the main groups found in North America - alligatorsturtleslizards,and snakes - have their own unique characteristics.
Jackson Chameleon

Frilled Lizard
All reptiles are vertebrates (animals with backbones). Their bodies are covered with horned scales or plates known as"scutes."
In some lizards, the scales are small, smooth and grain-like, while in others they are large, rough and more plate-like. The scales may have little ridges known askeels. Some have even developed into spines.
Want to read up on Frogs
and other Amphibians?
Click here to view!
Reptiles are cold-blooded creatures, many of which rely upon the sun's warmth to help them survive.

California Desert Tortoise - Santa Barbara Zoo
Most turtles and tortoises have scales on their heads and the legs, but the rest of the body is usually encased in a rounded, bony shell. The upper portion of the shell, called the carapace, includes the spine and the ribs. It is joined to the lower part, known as the plastron, by a bridge of bone. Most turtles and tortoises can easily pull their heads straight back into their shells.
Most of our reptilian friends are built low to the ground, giving them traction capabilities for an easier escape! Most reptiles, with the exception of snakes and lizards, have four legs.
Green Iguana
When it comes to reproduction, most reptiles are egg-layers, although, there are those who do give birth to live young.

Blandings Turtle
The bottom shell of some turtles, such asBox Turtles and the Blanding's Turtle, is hinged and can be pulled up against the top shell, sealing the turtle safely inside.

Ornate Box Turtle
The individual plates on a turtle's shell are called scutes, some of which can be quite colorful.
Both the American Alligator and theAmerican Crocodile have oblong, aerodynamic, torpedo-shaped bodies, which means they live well in the water. Both have keen vision and sharp hearing. When they dive under water, their nostrils close, and a clear membrane closes sideways across their eyes, thus protecting them.

American Crocodile

American Alligator
A wide flap closes the rear of the throat so that they don't drown when they're pulling prey underwater. The nostrils and eyes of crocodilians are perched on top of their heads, so they are able to see and breathe while almost entirely submerged.
Different lizard species have developed special features to help them survive in different habitats.

Young Bearded Dragons
Unlike snakes, some lizards, especially burrowers, have very small legs or no legs at all. Most lizards see and hear well. They have external ear openings and their eyes have movable eyelids. Some lizards have athird eye, which is a tiny, light-sensitive, transparent structure on top of the head that helps them regulate how long they stay in the sun.

Certain types of Monitor Lizards have stout bodies and bead-like scales. They stores fat in their thick tails and can survive without food for long periods of time in harsh desert conditions.

Nile Monitor

Monitor Lizard
Transparent eye caps protect the lidless eyes of various snakes. The transparent eye caps really help to protect these creatures from blinding light and other various types of danger. Want to read up on Frogs and other Amphibians? Click here to view!

Boa Constrictor - They Constrict Their Prey
Snakes are unique and fascinating animals. They have no eyelids, external ears, shoulders, or legs. Yet they live successfully without these body parts. Their slender body shape makes us realize that the insides of their bodies are very different from most animals, as well.With the exception of Antartica, snakes live on all continents of the world. Most snakes are egg layers, although some give birth to live young. Snakes are some of the most fascinating, amazing and misunderstood animals on the planet.
Snakes have large scales across their bellies, and smaller scales on the back. The back scales may have a smooth, polished appearance, or they may have a dull finish and a rough texture. The scales on water snakes have ridges, or keels (like some lizards), which help them move through water. Snakes that spend a lot of time burrowing have smooth scales, which enable them to move more easily through the soil.

Green Tree Boa
Because snakes cannot hear airborne sounds, their forked tongues work as a sensor in order to serve them. In essence, a snake "tastes" its surroundings, which helps it to follow scent trails or move out of harms way.Approximately 300 snake species are venomous. In most cases, the snake's teeth (fangs) are hollow, and carry the poison inside them. When the snake bites, it then injects the venom into its victim. Anacondas are much like Boa Constrictors. They constrict their prey before consumption.

Green Anaconda